EL Nino is a warm water. Current of the peru coast. It develops in the central and east central pacific ocean. EL Nino to the warm phase of ENSO (EL Nino southern oscillation) The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern pacific ocean.
EL Nino is a Spanish word. It means child Christ. Centuries ago the Peruvian fishermen discovered the EL nino and named it is it was seen in the Christmas time. Originally the term EL Nino applied to an annual warm ocean current that flows southwards along the coast of peru and Equador at about Christmas time. But now it means warm and negative phase of ENSO and warming of the ocean surface. This warming causes rainfall becoming reduced over Indonesia. India and northern Australia. It is believed that EL Nino has occurred for thousand years. Around 1525 Fransisco Pizarro while making landfall in peru noted rainfall in deserts, the first evidence of impact of EL Nino.
EL Nino happens at irregular interval of two to …. year and lasts nine months to two years. It is called EL Nino condition. When its duration is larger, it is classified as “EL Nino Episode. EL Nino affects the global climate and the normal weather pattern, which can lead to intense storms in some places and droughts in others. The atmosphere over the atlantic Ocean can also be drier and more warmer during EL Nino events. It can generate tropical cyclone and intensification. As warm water spreads from the west and the Indian ocean to the east pacific it takes the rain with it causing intensive drought in the westerm pacific and rainfall in the normally dry eastern pacific. During EL Nino events the shift the rainfall away from the western pacific may mean that rainfall across Australia is reduced. EL Nino, effects on Europe are controversial, complex, and difficult to analyse. Historically EL Nino was not understood to affect us weather pattern. During April October along the coasts of northern peru and Equador major flooding is caused by EL Nino. The effects during the months of February, March, April may become critical along the west coast of south America. EL Nino reduces the upwelling of cold nutrient rich water very helpful to fish populations. And seabirds, feed on fishes. So the effect is negatively significant. Decease of fish populationleads to major economic loss.
EL nino has the most direct impacts on life inthe equatorial pacific. It’s effects propagate north and south along the coasts of Americas, affecting marine life all around the pacific. The advent of EL Nino this year can increase global temperatures
After months of inticipation the ocean warming event known as ELNino is officially here and could last till 2024 as announced by the scientists of National Oceanic and Atmospheric administration (NOAA).
(The views expressed are the writer’s own.)
Radhakanta Seth is a former Income tax officer in Sambalpur. He is a freelance writer and his articles have been published in some Oriya dailies like Sambad, Samaj, Dharitri, and English dailies like The Telegraph and in a sociological journal ‘Folklore’ published in Kolkata.
He can be reached at [email protected]